"Theory of Inventive Problem Solving"

lecture prepared by Igor Polkovnikov, 2023.11.15



There are rumors than up to 1000000 patents were analyzed by Altshuller and his disciples. in 40 years of TRIZ development



are officially recorded methods of inventions,
i.e. methods of problem solving producing a new system property

51 principle is known now. Originally - 40.

- Negation;
- Combination-Division;
- Asymmetry-Symmetry;
- Dynamism;
- Circular-Linear;
- etc.

Swan Lake (sec210);


Different Levels Of Problems

The most difficult - containing CONFLICTS



The algorithm of Dialectical Analysis and Synthesis of problems requiring solutions of conflicts

from ARIZ 61 to ARIZ 85

General idea:

Steps to unblock end encourage the mind to find the best solution of a conflict problem with minimal expenses.

There is a notion what is the best solution and
what is the range of minimal expenses.



- contradictions (conflicts);
- clarification of the problem to reveal and aggravate conflicts;
- "System Itself ...";
- Objects carrying opposite properties;
- 11 methods to solve contradictions;
- Notion of "resources", especially resources of emptyness, time, micro-level, parent-system level;

It emphasizes non-standard, paradoxical thinking. Thinking in terms of contradictions and solutions.
Dialectical thinking!


General Formula of Contradictions

A acts well on B, but does harm (or does not act ) on C;
~A does harm to B, but acts well on C;



More than 200 schools of TRIZ were founded by G.S.Altshuller in the period 1960-1985. Photo. Google.

There all the methods of TRIZ were verified in practice.



Modern technical and especially scientific information is not suitable for inventors.

Knowledge in TRIZ is presented in the form suitable for problem solving:
The form: and elementary knowledge, an "effect" -> where and how applied


Laws of Technical System Evolution

The idea is that systems, and particularly technical systems "evolve".
This is Evolution.

  • S-curve;
  • Completeness ("all parts of the system..");
  • Gradual replacement of humans form Tech Systems;
  • System parts develop unevenly. Conflicts are the moving force of development;
  • Increasing Ideality;
  • System expansion and wrapping;
  • Increasing dynamisation and controllability;
  • Using lower systematic levels more and more, usage of fields;
  • Synchronization-Dissynchronization;


Rules of system changes to succeed along the evolution line.
There are 77 "standards" with 2-4 examples per each.

They are fundamentals of Systems Science.

Standard 1.1.1:
To form a system, take two parts and find or create an interaction between them.

Standard 1.1.2:
If the system is not forming, introduce an "additive" into one of two parts.


Functional Analysis

is analysis of and problem formulation on large existing systems.

A diagram is the result. A nodes of it are Useful Function and Harmful Effects.

There are only 3 relations (arrows) in a diagram:

  • UF causes HE,
  • UF is introduced to eliminate HE,
  • UF is required for another UF

There are only 5 types of problems devised from the diagram:

  • Find a way to eliminate, reduce or prevent HE
  • Find a way to benefit from HE
  • Find an alternative way of UF1 that provides UF2 and does not cause( or require) HE
  • Find a way to enhance UF
  • Find away to resolve contradiction (conflict): UF1 should provide a way for UF2 and does not cause HE

The graph even for a simple system is gigantic.


What is the moving force of Technical Systems Evolution ?

You! Everyday's problem solving job of engineers, technicians, marketers, etc.With all your good or bad solutions.

However, in a crisis

Non-traditional, paradoxical thinking

is paramount. So..

Fantasy development

+ The strategy of Inventor's Life


Fantasy Diagram

  Methods to change parameters, including Principles

Parameters of a system

what happens